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  • br Ad Mock treatment group and the control group the

    2022-05-22

    
    Ad-Mock treatment group and the control group, the aver-age growth rate of the Ad-VT treatment group was signifi-cantly lower at 4 to 5 weeks (P < 0.05). The average growth rate of the Ad-VT treatment group was always lower than that of the other groups at 3 to 5 weeks, indicat-ing that Ad-VT could effectively inhibit the growth of PC-3-luc tumors.
    From the tumor growth inhibition curve, it can be seen that the average tumor inhibition rate of the control group, Ad-Mock treatment group, and Apatinib Ad-vp3 treatment group
    Fig. 8. Invasion suppression effects on PC-3-luc Apatinib assessed using the Transwell assay.
    (A) The invasion suppression of PC-3-luc cells infected with 10 and 100 MOI recombinant adenovirus at 24 and 48 hours. (B and C) Cells that had passed
    through the membrane were counted under a microscope after they were fixated with carbinol and stained with crystal violet. Cells infected with Ad-VT showed the lowest invasion at 24 and 48 hours. Data are presented as the means § standard deviation (SD). * P < 0.05, ** P < 0.01, *** P < 0.001, compared with the control.
    showed no significant change at to 5 weeks (P > 0.05); at 2 to 5 weeks, the average tumor inhibition rate of the Ad-VT treatment group was always higher than that of the other groups; the average tumor inhibition rate of the Ad-VT treatment group was significantly higher than that of the Ad-Mock treatment group and the control group at 3 to 5 weeks (P < 0.05); and at 5 weeks, the average tumor inhibition rate of the Ad-VT treatment group was as high as 66%, indicating that Ad-VT has a significant tumor inhi-bition effect. 
    After inducing subcutaneous tumors, the survival of each group of nude mice was continuously recorded. As shown in Fig. 9E, compared with the other 3 treatment groups (Ad-VT, Ad-T, and Ad-vp3), the mice of the control group and the Ad-mock treatment group began to die from about 23 days after the formation of the subcutaneous tumors, and their average survival times were about 30.8 days and 31.2 days, respectively, with no significant differ-ence (P > 0.05). Compared with the Ad-vp3 treatment group, the Ad-Mock treatment group, and the control r> Fig. 9. Effect of recombinant adenovirus on prostate cancer in a BALB/c nude mice model.
    (A and B) The xenograft models were established via subcutaneous injection of PC-3-luc cells (1 £ 106/100 ml) into the right legs of the mice (n = 10 per group). Beginning after tumor formation, in vivo bioluminescent imaging was used to continuously monitor changes in tumor bioluminescence intensity. (C and
    D) The length and width of the xenograft tumors were measured weekly using Vernier calipers from week, and continuously measured to 5 weeks. The % tumor
    inhibition was calculated using the formula: (1 - treatment group tumor weight/control tumor weight) £ 100%. (E) After successfully establishing xenograft mod-els in nude mice, the survival of the mice was recorded every day, and 6 weeks was recorded continuously. The average % tumor inhibition of the Ad-VT group
    group, the average survival time of the Ad-VT and Ad-T treatment groups was about 38 days and 36.1 days, respec-tively, that is, the survival time was significantly prolonged (P < 0.05). The survival time of the Ad-VT treated group 
    was longer than that of the Ad-T treated group, and at 42 days, the survival rate of the Ad-VT treated mice was 66.67%. This indicates that Ad-VT can increase the sur-vival rate of mice and significantly prolong their survival.
    4. Discussion
    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death in developed and developing countries [36]. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men. The genetic and epigenetic instability of tumor cell is potential driver for malignant pro-gression, which includes evasion of growth inhibition sig-nals, sustainment of replication, inhibition of cell death, stimulation of angiogenesis, cell migration and invasion, reprogramming of energy metabolism and avoidance of immune cells, which are known as "Hallmarks of Cancer" [37,38]. Currently, many researches are focusing on onco-lytic virus as a gene therapy for treatment of cancer, how-ever, the main challenge is to monitor and track the effects of gene therapy [39]. With the introduction of molecular imaging technology, these challenges can be overcom. Molecular imaging technology has many advantages which enable to monitor various physiological and pathological changes in a noninvasive and real-time approach.