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  • br Conclusions br In this study


    5. Conclusions
    In this study, a sensitive and specific AuNP-based colorimetric method for visual detection of PCA3 in prostate cancer was successfully developed. This new method was based on interactions between thio-lated PCR products and unmodified AuNPs. The positive and negative results were clearly distinguished by the naked eye, being red and blue color, respectively. Although it still required a RT-PCR step, post-PCR analysis with gel electrophoresis was not needed in this method. The incubation time was short and results were obtained within 10 min of RT-PCR completion. Moreover, a large number of samples could be tested simultaneously in 96-well microtiter plates. In short, this method was simple, rapid, cost-effective and did not require complicated in-struments. Given these advantages, this assay has the potential to be used for PCA3 detection in urine. Significantly, the proposed method is promising in that it discriminated PCa patients from healthy subjects and BPH patients based on differing Tadalafil levels of PCA3 in their urine sediments. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach utilizing AuNPs to detect PCA3 for the accurate diagnosis of prostate cancer.
    Conflict of interest
    The authors declare that they have no financial or commercial conflicts of interest.
    This work was supported by National Research Council of Thailand and Health Systems Research Institute (grant number HSRI 60-026). Khin Phyu Pyar Htoo was supported by the Mahidol-Norway Capacity Building Initiative for ASEAN Scholarship.
    Y. Dundar, The clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the PROGENSA prostate cancer antigen 3 assay and the Prostate Health Index in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a systematic review and economic evaluation, Health Technol. Assess. 19 (2015) 1–191 ) i-xxxi.
    X. Zhang, Z. Zhao, C. Wan, R. Zhang, J. Cheng, Highly sensitive naked-eye assay for enterovirus 71 detection based on catalytic nanoparticle aggregation and im-munomagnetic amplification, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9 (2017) 14691–14699.
    [36] M. Shen, W. Chen, K. Yu, Z. Chen, W. Zhou, X. Lin, Z. Weng, C. Li, X. Wu, Z. Tao, The diagnostic value of PCA3 gene-based analysis of urine sediments after digital rectal examination for prostate cancer in a Chinese population, Exp. Mol. Pathol. 90
    [37] H. Moradi Sardareh, M.T. Goodarzi, R. Yadegar-Azari, J. Poorolajal, S.H. Mousavi-Bahar, M. Saidijam, Prostate cancer antigen 3 gene expression in peripheral blood and urine sediments from prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia patients versus healthy individuals, Urol. J. 11 (2014) 1952–1958.
    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    Archives of Oral Biology
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    Combination of 5-Florouracil and polyphenol EGCG exerts suppressive effects on oral cancer cells exposed to radiation 
    Eduardo Pons-Fuster López , Francisco Gómez García, Pia López Jornet
    Department of Oral Medicine, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain
    Oral squamous cell carcinoma
    In vitro
    Objective: Natural compounds such as epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) have previously shown chemother-apeutic properties with few side-effects. In our study, we evaluated the effects of combining EGCG with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and radiotherapy on oral squamous cell cancer. We evaluated whether the combination of lower doses of 5-FU with EGCG could be equally or more effective than the use of higher doses of 5-FU alone. Methods: Cell viability, migration and cell cycles were assayed in oral cancer cell lines treated with 5-FU, 5-FU + EGCG and radiation (0, 2.5 and 5 Gy). r> Results: This study found that the combination of EGCG with 5-FU reduced cell viability and migration distance compared to control samples and the same dose of 5-FU alone. Addition of EGCG increased the number of cells in the G2/M phase, while 5-FU arrested the cell cycle in phase S. Moreover, cell exposure to 5 Gy radiation de-creased the effects of combining with EGCG.
    Conclusions: In summary, the combination of EGCG and 5-FU reduced both cell viability and migration as well as altered the cell cycle to a greater extent than 5-FU alone.
    1. Introduction
    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common head and neck cancer (Gupta, Johnson, & Kumar, 2016; Scully & Bagan, 2009; Yakob, Fuentes, Wang, Abemayor, & Wong, 2014; Zini, Czerninski, & Sgan-Cohen, 2010). Extensive research has focused on optimizing a plan of action for treating OSCC. As a result, the improvement of sur-gical techniques combined with drugs and radiotherapy has increased patients’ survival rates over the last decade, but the secondary effects of these therapies are major complications that compromise a patient’s quality of life. The success of oral cancer treatment is based on multi-target treatment strategies aimed at maximizing oncological control and minimizing the secondary effects of the therapies involved. For this reason, there is an urgent need to minimize the negative impact of therapy. Numerous plant-based compounds have chemotherapeutic activities (Chen, Chu et al., 2011; Hwang, Park, & Chung, 2013; Jee, Lee, Kim, Shin, & Youn, 2011) and could be combined with conven-tional treatment methods to reduce secondary effects, reducing the chemoradiation doses involved without compromising their efficacy.